from Thomas Chen's website
Above: Picture of a Portuguese-style matchlock gun adopted by the Chinese military as rendered in General Qi Jiguang's military manual
"Ji Xiao Xin Shu", edition of 1588. This weapon was copied from Japanese pirates who in turn had earlier copied the design from the Portuguese. The Chinese Imperial Forces had embraced this weapon enthusiastically. In 1558, a total of 10,000 of such weapons were manufactured for the Chinese Imperial Army by Chinese gunsmiths.http://chinese-gun.freewebspace.com/images/diagram.jpg
Above: Pics from the Chinese musket manual "Magically Efficient Tools" of 1598, authored by Zhao Shizhen:
A) Turkish musket B) Western (Portuguese-style) musket C) Zhao Shizhen's self-developed breech-loading musket.
During his time, he had copied the Turkish musket, then devised a breech-loading model based on
the Turkish musket and commissioned the manufacture of both for the Ming Imperial Court.
This breech-loading musket is most likely the world's earliest type of breech-loading musket.
Below: Pic from the above manual, Ming soldier with portuguese
musket in a kneeling position with a fork-clamp rest-peg
Armoured Ming soldiers in the 1620s-40s, with their muskets and 3-eyed guns, supported by non-armoured soldiers equipped with sabers and shields. General Qi has advocated firing off the 3-eyed gun at long range when the enemy is far away, afterwhich it would be used as a polearm in close-quarters fighting.
A Qing Imperial Army cavalry warrior, with his matchlock gun slung around his shoulder. He wears a coat of mail and wields a lance. His quiver of arrows is shown, but his bow and saber are not seen as they are suspended on his belt on his left side.
Military parade showing soldiers of the Blue Banner with their muskets. The Qing military had a very strong and large musket component in their forces.